Ramayana, Mahabharata and Bhagavad Gita Eventually, Hindus followed the impulse that had appeared among the Sumerians: These stories were written to create ideals for people to follow. The better known of these are poems called the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Ramayana translates as the Story of Rama.
Indeed, the epic form prevailed and verse remained until very recently the preferred form of Hindu literary works. Hero -worship is a central aspect of Indian cultureand thus readily lent itself to a literary tradition that abounded in epic poetry and literature.
The Puranasa massive collection of verse-form histories of India's many Hindu gods and goddesses, followed in this tradition. He lived in the 1st-2nd century. He wrote a biography of the Buddha, titled Buddhacarita. His second epic is called Saundarananda and tells the story of the conversion of Nanda, the younger brother of the Buddha.
Later, during the Chola period, Kamban 12th century wrote what is considered one of the greatest Tamil epics — the Kamba Ramayanam of Kambanbased on the Valmiki Ramayana.
Out of the five, Manimegalai and Kundalakesi are Buddhist religious works, Civaka Cintamani and Valayapathi are Tamil Jain works and Silappatikaram has a neutral religious view. They were written over a period of 1st century CE to 10th century CE and act as the historical evidence of social, religious, cultural and academic life of people during the era they were created.
Civaka Cintamani introduced long verses called virutha pa in Tamil literature. Tamil epics such as Silappathikaram and Periya Puranam are unique in Indian literature as they employ characters and stories associated with the people and language of the poets Tamil and take place within the Tamil country.
This is in contrast to other Indian languages which are based on Sanskrit works and deal with Sanskrit mythology based on North Indian works.
Kannada epic poetry[ edit ] Main article: Kannada literature Kannada epic poetry mainly consists of Jain religious literature and Lingayat literature. His Vikramarjuna Vijaya also called the Pampabharatha is hailed as a classic even to this day.
The former work is an adaptation of the celebrated Mahabharataand is the first such adaptation in Kannada. Noted for the strong human bent and the dignified style in his writing, Pampa has been one of the most influential writers in Kannada.
He is identified as Adikavi "first poet". It is only in Kannada that we have a Ramayana and a Mahabharata based on the Jain tradition in addition to those based on Brahmanical tradition. Shivakotiacharya was the first writer in prose style.
Another major writer of the period is Ranna ? His most famous works are the Jain religious work Ajita Tirthankara Purana and the Gada Yuddhaa birds' eye view of the Mahabharata set in the last day of the battle of Kurukshetra and relating the story of the Mahabharata through a series of flashbacks.
Structurally, the poetry in this period is in the Champu style, essentially poetry interspersed with lyrical prose. The Siribhoovalaya is a unique work of multilingual Kannada literature written by Kumudendu Munia Jain monk.
The work is unique in that it does not employ letters, but is composed entirely in Kannada numerals. As each of these patterns are identified and decoded, the contents can be read. The work is said to have aroundverses, nearly six times as big as the ancient Indian epic Mahabharata.
Hindi epics[ edit ] The first epic to appear in Hindi was Tulsidas ' — Ramacharitamanasalso based on the Ramayana. It is considered a great classic of Hindi epic poetry and literature, and shows the author Tulsidas in complete command over all the important styles of composition — narrative, epic, lyrical and dialectic.
He has given a divine character to Ramathe Hindu Avatar of Vishnuportraying him as an ideal son, husband, brother and king.
In modern Hindi literature, Kamayani by Jaishankar Prasad has attained the status of an epic. The narrative of Kamayani is based on a popular mythological story, first mentioned in Satapatha Brahmana. It is a story of the great flood and the central characters of the epic poem are Manu a male and Shraddha a female.
Manu is representative of the human psyche and Shradha represents love. Another female character is Idawho represents rationality.
Some critics surmise that the three lead characters of Kamayani symbolize a synthesis of knowledge, action and desires in human life.The commonalities found in the narratives of these two epics can be attributed to the compositional techniques of the oral tradition, to which both these epics belong.
A.K. Ramanujan likens the Ramayana tradition to a pool of signifiers that includes plot, characters, names, geography, incidents, and relations, arguing that each Ramayana can be.
Find ramayana lesson plans and teaching resources. From ramayana morals worksheets to ramayana hero cycle videos, quickly find teacher-reviewed educational resources.
View through PowerPoint artistic representations of the characters of the Ramayana and Mahabharata, and have pupils complete the character study. So if Ramayana is deeply concerned with ‘both’, Mahabharata deals with ‘either’ – and that is the major difference.
While looking out for articles and sources about the epics, I stumbled upon this video of Devdutt Pattanaik (an eminent mythologist).
In their desire to carry knowledge to the people at large, they, therefore, composed the two great epics in later times. The two epics were The RAMAYANA and The MAHABHARATA. The epics were written during the later half of the second millennium and the first half .
Professor Narendra Kohli is best known as the author of novels retelling India’s greatest epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata, which he started writing in The Indians produced two great epics Mahabharata and Ramayana The religion followed by the majority of India's large population is __ which has a variety of beliefs, ritual and gods.