History of Trigonometry Outline Trigonometry is, of course, a branch of geometry, but it differs from the synthetic geometry of Euclid and the ancient Greeks by being computational in nature. For instance, Proposition I.
See Article History Trigonometry, the branch of mathematics concerned with specific functions of angles and their application to calculations. There are six functions of an angle commonly used in trigonometry. Their names and abbreviations are sine sincosine costangent tancotangent cotsecant secand cosecant csc.
These six trigonometric functions in relation to a right triangle are displayed in the figure. For example, the triangle contains an angle A, and the ratio of the side opposite to A and the side opposite to the right angle the hypotenuse is called the sine of A, or sin A; the other trigonometry functions are defined similarly.
These functions are properties of the angle A independent of the size of the triangle, and calculated values were tabulated for many angles before computers made trigonometry tables obsolete.
Trigonometric functions are used in obtaining unknown angles and distances from known or measured angles in geometric figures. Trigonometry developed from a need to compute angles and distances in such fields as astronomymapmakingsurveyingand artillery range finding.
Problems involving angles and distances in one plane are covered in plane trigonometry.
Applications to similar problems in more than one plane of three-dimensional space are considered in spherical trigonometry. Until about the 16th century, trigonometry was chiefly concerned with computing the numerical values of the missing parts of a triangle or any shape that can be dissected into triangles when the values of other parts were given.
For example, The history of trigonometry essay the lengths of two sides of a triangle and the measure of the enclosed angle are known, the third side and the two remaining angles can be calculated. Such calculations distinguish trigonometry from geometrywhich mainly investigates qualitative relations.
Of course, this distinction is not always absolute: Still, in its original form, trigonometry was by and large an offspring of geometry; it was not until the 16th century that the two became separate branches of mathematics.
Ancient Egypt and the Mediterranean world Several ancient civilizations—in particular, the EgyptianBabylonianHindu, and Chinese—possessed a considerable knowledge of practical geometry, including some concepts that were a prelude to trigonometry.
The Rhind papyrusan Egyptian collection of 84 problems in arithmeticalgebra, and geometry dating from about bce, contains five problems dealing with the seked. A close analysis of the text, with its accompanying figures, reveals that this word means the slope of an incline—essential knowledge for huge construction projects such as the pyramids.
For example, problem 56 asks: Trigonometry in the modern sense began with the Greeks. He considered every triangle—planar or spherical—as being inscribed in a circle, so that each side becomes a chord that is, a straight line that connects two points on a curve or surfaceas shown by the inscribed triangle ABC in the figure.
To compute the various parts of the triangle, one has to find the length of each chord as a function of the central angle that subtends it—or, equivalently, the length of a chord as a function of the corresponding arc width. This became the chief task of trigonometry for the next several centuries.
As an astronomer, Hipparchus was mainly interested in spherical triangles, such as the imaginary triangle formed by three stars on the celestial spherebut he was also familiar with the basic formulas of plane trigonometry.
The first major ancient work on trigonometry to reach Europe intact after the Dark Ages was the Almagest by Ptolemy c. He lived in Alexandriathe intellectual centre of the Hellenistic world, but little else is known about him.
In order to develop this world picture—the essence of which was a stationary Earth around which the SunMoonand the five known planets move in circular orbits —Ptolemy had to use some elementary trigonometry. Hence, a table of values for chords in a circle of fixed radius is also a table of values for the sine of angles by doubling the arc.
India and the Islamic world The next major contribution to trigonometry came from India. In the sexagesimal system, multiplication or division by twice 60 is analogous to multiplication or division by 20 twice 10 in the decimal system.
The first table of sines is found in the Aryabhatiya. Its author, Aryabhata I c. Later, when Muslim scholars translated this work into Arabic, they retained the word jiva without translating its meaning. In Semitic languages words consist mostly of consonants, the pronunciation of the missing vowels being understood by common usage.Trigonometry in Daily Life Essay The History of Math Essay examples - The history of math has become an important study, from ancient to modern times it has been fundamental to advances in science, engineering, and philosophy.
Mathematics started with counting. In Babylonia mathematics developed from B.C. Trigonometry is a field of mathematics first compiled by 2nd century BCE by the Greek mathematician Hipparchus. The history of trigonometry and of trigonometric functions follows the general lines of the history of mathematics.
Trigonometry is based on the study of right-angled triangles. This is a form of geometry that developed out of the study of the stars.
It is also concerned with the relationships that exist between the sides and angles of triangles, and their measurement.
The History of Trigonometry is one type of mathematics that deals with the sides and the angles. In the First paragraph I would like to explain the main history of trigonometry and also go into detail about the certain aspects of the mathematic branch.
Trigonometry is a branch of mathematics that studies relationships between the sides and angles of triangles. Trigonometry is found all throughout geometry, as . History of Trigonometry Essay Sample The History of Trigonometry dated back to the early ages of Egypt and Babylon.
Many different Astronomers and Mathematicians all took place in helping create Trigonometry, people from Hipparchus, all the way to Isaac Newton.