A new, innovative technology can provide sustainable cost advantage for the early entrant; if the technology, and the learning curve to acquire it, can be kept proprietary, and the firm can maintain leadership in market share. The diffusion of innovation can diminish the first-mover advantages over time, through workforce mobility, publication of research, informal technical communication, reverse engineering, and plant tours. However, in most industries, patents confer only weak protection, are easy to invent around, or have transitory value given the pace of technological change.
In the following scenes she appears to pinch, swipe and prod the pages of paper magazines as though they too were screens. When nothing happens, she pushes against her leg, confirming that her finger works just fine—or so a title card would have us believe.
Perhaps his daughter really did expect the paper magazines to respond the same way an iPad would. Or maybe she had no expectations at all—maybe she just wanted to touch the magazines. Young children who have never seen a tablet like the iPad or an e-reader like the Kindle will still reach out and run their fingers across the pages of a paper book; they will jab at an illustration they like; heck, they will even taste the corner of a book.
Nevertheless, the video brings into focus an important question: How exactly does the technology we use to read change the way we read? How reading on screens differs from reading on paper is relevant not just to the youngest among usbut to just about everyone who reads—to anyone who routinely switches between working long hours in front of a computer at the office and leisurely reading paper magazines and books at home; to people who have embraced e-readers for their convenience and portability, but admit that for some reason they still prefer reading on paper; and to those who have already vowed to forgo tree pulp entirely.
As digital texts and technologies become more prevalent, we gain new and more mobile ways of reading—but are we still reading as attentively and thoroughly?
How do our brains respond differently to onscreen text than to words on paper? Should we be worried about dividing our attention between pixels and ink or is the validity of such concerns paper-thin? Since at least the s researchers in many different fields—including psychology, computer engineering, and library and information science—have investigated such questions in more than one hundred published studies.
The matter is by no means settled. Before most studies concluded that people read slower, less accurately and less comprehensively on screens than on paper.
Studies published since the early showever, have produced more inconsistent results: And recent surveys suggest that although most people still prefer paper—especially when reading intensively—attitudes are changing as tablets and e-reading technology improve and reading digital books for facts and fun becomes more common.
Even so, evidence from laboratory experimentspolls and consumer reports indicates that modern screens and e-readers fail to adequately recreate certain tactile experiences of reading on paper that many people miss and, more importantly, prevent people from navigating long texts in an intuitive and satisfying way.
In turn, such navigational difficulties may subtly inhibit reading comprehension. Compared with paper, screens may also drain more of our mental resources while we are reading and make it a little harder to remember what we read when we are done.
Whether they realize it or not, many people approach computers and tablets with a state of mind less conducive to learning than the one they bring to paper. I would like to preserve the absolute best of older forms, but know when to use the new.
We often think of reading as a cerebral activity concerned with the abstract—with thoughts and ideas, tone and themes, metaphors and motifs.
As far as our brains are concerned, however, text is a tangible part of the physical world we inhabit. In fact, the brain essentially regards letters as physical objects because it does not really have another way of understanding them.
As Wolf explains in her book Proust and the Squid, we are not born with brain circuits dedicated to reading. After all, we did not invent writing until relatively recently in our evolutionary history, around the fourth millennium B.
So the human brain improvises a brand-new circuit for reading by weaving together various regions of neural tissue devoted to other abilities, such as spoken language, motor coordination and vision.
Some of these repurposed brain regions are specialized for object recognition —they are networks of neurons that help us instantly distinguish an apple from an orange, for example, yet classify both as fruit.
Just as we learn that certain features—roundness, a twiggy stem, smooth skin—characterize an apple, we learn to recognize each letter by its particular arrangement of lines, curves and hollow spaces.
Some researchers see traces of these origins in modern alphabets: C as crescent moon, S as snake. Especially intricate characters—such as Chinese hanzi and Japanese kanji —activate motor regions in the brain involved in forming those characters on paper: The brain literally goes through the motions of writing when reading, even if the hands are empty.
Researchers recently discovered that the same thing happens in a milder way when some people read cursive. Beyond treating individual letters as physical objects, the human brain may also perceive a text in its entirety as a kind of physical landscape. When we read, we construct a mental representation of the text in which meaning is anchored to structure.
The exact nature of such representations remains unclear, but they are likely similar to the mental maps we create of terrain—such as mountains and trails—and of man-made physical spaces, such as apartments and offices.
Both anecdotally and in published studiespeople report that when trying to locate a particular piece of written information they often remember where in the text it appeared. We might recall that we passed the red farmhouse near the start of the trail before we started climbing uphill through the forest; in a similar way, we remember that we read about Mr.
Darcy rebuffing Elizabeth Bennett on the bottom of the left-hand page in one of the earlier chapters. In most cases, paper books have more obvious topography than onscreen text. An open paperback presents a reader with two clearly defined domains—the left and right pages—and a total of eight corners with which to orient oneself.For students and adults with reading disabilities such as dyslexia and ADD/ADHD, blindness, low vision, and anyone else who wants any text read out loud.
Many people overlook the many health and therapeutic benefits of reading. Reading provides information and information leads to knowledge which leads to power. For all avid readers who have been self-medicating with great books their entire lives, it comes as no surprise that reading books can be good for you.
The Print. Printed books revolutionized the world nearly years ago and since then, they have influenced every part of the world specifically in cultures, science, inventions, imaginative thoughts and every person’s intellect through these materials’ power to share ideas and information.
For all avid readers who have been self-medicating with great books their entire lives, it comes as no surprise that reading books can be good for you. Advantages. Climbers carry Prusik cords mainly for emergency use, as they are lighter than other options. Prusiks are fast to place on a . The 26 Major Advantages to Reading More Books and Why 3 in 4 People Are Being Shut Out of Success. by Brad Isaac on December 5,
What is the father reading at the beginning of the conversation? A. a novel B. a magazine C.
a newspaper. 2. What kind of book does the girl want to read? The power of story in SLA: Insights from research. (Reconceptualizing English Language Teaching and Learning in the 21st Century A Special Monograph in Memory of Professor Kai-chong Cheung.