The Concepts of Beneficence and Benevolence The term beneficence connotes acts of mercy, kindness, and charity.
References and Further Reading 1. Metaphysics Traditionally, metaphysics pertains to the analysis of objects or events and the forces or factors causing or impinging upon them. One branch of metaphysics, denoted ontology, investigates problems and questions concerning the nature and existence of objects or events and their associated forces or factors.
Another branch of metaphysics involves the examination of presuppositions that inform a given ontology. For philosophy of medicine, the most controversial debate centers around the presuppositions of reductionism and holism. In addition, the debate between realism and antirealism has important traction within the field.
Holism The reductionism-holism debate enjoys a lively history, especially from the middle to the latter part of the twentieth century. Reductionism, broadly construed, is the diminution of complex objects or events to their component parts.
In other words, the properties of the whole are simply the addition or summation of the properties of the individual parts. Such reductionism is often called metaphysical or ontological reductionism to distinguish it from methodological or epistemological reductionism.
Methodological reductionism refers to the investigation of complex objects and events and their associated forces or factors by using technology that isolates and analyzes individual components only. Epistemological reductionism involves the explanation of complex objects and events and their associated forces or factors in terms of their individual components only.
Life scientists often sort these parts into a descending hierarchy. Jan Smuts introduced the term in the early part of the twentieth century, especially with respect to biological evolution, to account for living processes—without the need for immaterial components.
The relevance of the reductionism-holism debate pertains to both medical knowledge and practice.
Reductionism influences not only how a biomedical scientist investigates and explains disease, but also how a clinician diagnoses and treats it. For example, if a biomedical researcher believes that the underlying cause of a mental disease is dysfunction in brain processes or mechanisms, especially at the molecular level, then that disease is often investigated exclusively at that level.
In turn, a clinician classifies mental diseases in terms of brain processes or mechanisms at the molecular level, such as depletion in levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin.
Subsequently, the disease is treated pharmacologically by prescribing drugs to elevate the low levels of the neurotransmitter in the depressed brain to levels considered normal within the non-depressed brain.
Although the assumption of reductionism produces a detailed understanding of diseases in molecular or mechanistic terms, many clinicians and patients are dissatisfied with the assumption. Rather than simply treating the disease, such information is vital for treating patients with chronic cases.
Rather than striving exclusively for restoration of the patient to a pre-diseased state, the clinician assists the patient in redefining what the illness means for their life.
Antirealism Realism is the philosophical notion that observable objects and events are actual objects and events, independent of the person observing them.
In other words, since it exists outside the minds of those observing it, reality does not depend on conceptual structures or linguistic formulations. Proponents of realism also espouse that even unobservable objects and events, like subatomic particles, exist.
Historically, realists believe that universals—abstractions of objects and events—are separate from the mind cognizing them.Provides you with the principles and techniques necessary for success and leadership in the conception, design, implementation, and operation of aerospace and related engineering systems.
1. Precursors to the Classical Approach. Though the first systematic account of utilitarianism was developed by Jeremy Bentham (–), the core insight . Programs. Programs offered by the VPGE office span a wide range of topics and experiences.
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David Hume (/ h juː m /; born David Home; 7 May NS (26 April OS) – 25 August ) was a Scottish Enlightenment philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
Hume's empiricist approach to philosophy places him with John Locke, George Berkeley, Francis Bacon and. This page lists the members of Stanford University, including students, alumni, faculty and academic affiliates associated..
Founded in by former California Governor and U.S. Senator Leland Stanford and his wife, Jane Stanford, the university was opened on October 1, as a coeducational and non-denominational institution.
During the s and s, Provost Frederick Terman supported.