Oyo Empire During the 15th century Oyo and Benin surpassed Ife as political and economic powers, although Ife preserved its status as a religious center.
Enjoy the Famous Daily Historic regions: They date back as far as the 5th century BC, when communities living around the southern slopes of the Jos plateau make wonderfully expressive terracotta figures - in a tradition known now as the Nok culturefrom the Nigerian village History of nigeria these sculptures are first unearthed.
The Nok people are neolithic tribes who have recently acquired the iron technology spreading southwards through Africa. The Jos plateau is in the centre of Nigeria, but the first extensive kingdoms of the region - more than a millennium after the Nok people - are in the north and northeast, deriving their wealth from trade north through the Sahara and east into the Sudan.
During the 9th centurya trading empire grows up around Lake Chad. Its original centre is east of the lake, in the Kanem region, but it soon extends to Bornu on the western side. In the 11th century the ruler of Kanem-Bornu converts to Islam.
West of Bornu, along the northern frontier of Nigeria, is the land of the Hausa people. Well placed to control trade with the forest regions to the south, the Hausa develop a number of small but stable kingdoms, each ruled from a strong walled city. They are often threatened by larger neighbours Mali and Gao to the west, Bornu to the east.
But the Hausa traders benefit also from being on the route between these empires. By the 14th century they too are Muslim. In the savanna grasslands and the forest regions west of the Niger, between the Hausa kingdoms and the coast, the Yoruba people are the dominant tribes.
Here they establish two powerful states. The first is Ife, on the border between forest and savanna. Famous now for its sculpture, Ife flourishes from the 11th to 15th century.
In the 16th century a larger Yoruba empire develops, based slightly further from the forest at Oyo. Using the profits of trade to develop a forceful cavalry, Oyo grows in strength during the 16th century.
Nigeria has a long history, with its roots in early civilisations of distinguished artistry. The plateau area around Jos was a meeting point for cultural influences from the Upper Niger Valley (where agriculture developed independently as early as BCE) and from Egypt. In May , the military dictatorship that devastated the economic and social capital of the country ended and an elected, civilian-led government that represented the will of . HISTORY OF NIGERIA including Historic regions, Fulani and Sokoto, British explorers, SS Alburkah, Trade and anti-slavery, British colonial rule, Independence and secession, From oil wealth to disaster. Search the whole site.
By the end of the 18th century the rulers of Oyo are controlling a region from the Niger to the west of Dahomey. Meanwhile, firmly within the forest, the best known of all the Nigerian kingdoms establishes itself in the 15th century from small beginnings in the 13th.
Benin becomes a name internationally known for its cast-metal sculpture, in a tradition inherited from the Ife see Sculpture of Ife and Benin. In terms of extent Benin is no match for Oyo, its contemporary to the north. In the 15th century the region brought under central control is a mere seventy-miles across people and places being harder to subdue in the tropical forest than on the savannathough a century later Benin stretches from the Niger delta in the east to Lagos in the west.
But Benin's fame is based on factors other than power. This is the coastal kingdom which the Portuguese discover when they reach the mouth of the Niger in the s, bringing back to Europe the first news of superb African artefacts and of the ceremonial splendour of Benin's oba or king.
The kings of Benin are a story in themselves.
In the 19th century they scandalize the west by their use of human sacrifice in court rituals. And they have stamina. At the end of the 20th century the original dynasty is still in place, though without political power.
All in all, among Nigeria's many historic kingdoms, Benin has earned its widespread renown. The Fulani and Sokoto: From sheikh Usman dan Fodio and his two sons lead the Fulani in an immensely successful holy war against the lax Muslim rulers of the Hausa kingdoms.
The result is the establishment in of a Fulani capital at Sokoto, from which the centre and north of Nigeria is effectively ruled for the rest of the 19th century. But during this same period there has been steady encroachment on the region by British interests.
In the British government sponsors an expedition south through the Sahara to reach the kingdom of Bornu.A chronology of key events in the history of Nigeria from its earliest civilisations to the present day. Nigeria has a long history, with its roots in early civilisations of distinguished artistry.
The plateau area around Jos was a meeting point for cultural influences from the Upper Niger Valley (where agriculture developed independently as early as BCE) and from Egypt. Modern Nigeria dates from , when the British Protectorates of Northern and Southern Nigeria were joined.
The country became independent on October 1, , and in adopted a republican constitution but elected to stay a member of the Commonwealth. Nigeria’s system of juvenile justice, which is modeled after the British system, was established in , although it has been modified in various locations to accommodate local customs.
Juvenile offenders are legally defined as those aged 7 to 17, and they are subject to. Nigerian history is fragmented in the sense that it evolved from a variety of traditions, but many of the most outstanding features of modern society reflect the strong influence of the three regionally dominant ethnic groups--the Hausa in the north, the Yoruba in the west, and the Igbo in the east.
All in all, among Nigeria's many historic kingdoms, Benin has earned its widespread renown. The Fulani and Sokoto: Living among the Hausa in the northern regions of Nigeria are a tribe, the Fulani, whose leaders in the early 19th century become passionate advocates of strict Islam.