Indian philosophy Indian philosophy Sanskrit:
Origin[ edit ] Transcendentalism is closely related to Unitarianismthe dominant religious movement in Boston in the early nineteenth century.
Transcendentalism was not a rejection of Unitarianism; rather, it developed as an organic consequence of the Unitarian emphasis on free conscience and the value of intellectual reason. The transcendentalists were not content with the sobriety, mildness, and calm rationalism of Unitarianism.
Instead, they longed for a more intense spiritual experience. Thus, transcendentalism was not born as a counter-movement to Unitarianism, but as a parallel movement to the very ideas introduced by the Unitarians. Fromthe group frequently published in their journal The Dialalong with other venues.
Second wave of transcendentalists[ edit ] By the late s, Emerson believed that the movement was dying out, and even more so after the death of Margaret Fuller in This is the underlying theme in the majority of transcendentalist essays and papers—all of which are centered on subjects which assert a love for individual expression.
It focuses primarily on personal freedom. Their beliefs are closely linked with those of the Romanticsbut differ by an attempt to embrace or, at least, to not oppose the empiricism of science.
Transcendental knowledge[ edit ] Transcendentalists desire to ground their religion and philosophy in principles based upon the German Romanticism of Herder and Schleiermacher. Transcendentalism merged "English and German Romanticism, the Biblical criticism of Herder and Schleiermacherand the skepticism of Hume ",  and the transcendental philosophy of Immanuel Kant and of German Idealism more generallyinterpreting Kant's a priori categories as a priori knowledge.
The transcendental movement can be described as an American outgrowth of English Romanticism. Individualism[ edit ] Transcendentalists believe that society and its institutions—particularly organized religion and political parties—corrupt the purity of the individual.
They have faith that people are at their best when truly "self-reliant" and independent. It is only from such real individuals that true community can form.
Even with this necessary individuality, transcendentalists also believe that all people are outlets for the " Over-soul. Indian religions[ edit ] Transcendentalism has been directly influenced by Indian religions. Henry David Thoreau In the morning I bathe my intellect in the stupendous and cosmogonal philosophy of the Bhagavat Geeta, since whose composition years of the gods have elapsed, and in comparison with which our modern world and its literature seem puny and trivial; and I doubt if that philosophy is not to be referred to a previous state of existence, so remote is its sublimity from our conceptions.
I lay down the book and go to my well for water, and lo! I meet his servant come to draw water for his master, and our buckets as it were grate together in the same well. The pure Walden water is mingled with the sacred water of the Ganges. Some adherents link it with utopian social change; Brownsonfor example, connected it with early socialism, but others consider it an exclusively individualist and idealist project.
Emerson believed the latter; in his lecture " The Transcendentalist ", he suggested that the goal of a purely transcendental outlook on life was impossible to attain in practice: You will see by this sketch that there is no such thing as a transcendental party; that there is no pure transcendentalist; that we know of no one but prophets and heralds of such a philosophy; that all who by strong bias of nature have leaned to the spiritual side in doctrine, have stopped short of their goal.
We have had many harbingers and forerunners; but of a purely spiritual life, history has afforded no example. I mean, we have yet no man who has leaned entirely on his character, and eaten angels' food; who, trusting to his sentiments, found life made of miracles; who, working for universal aims, found himself fed, he knew not how; clothed, sheltered, and weaponed, he knew not how, and yet it was done by his own hands.
Shall we say, then, that transcendentalism is the Saturnalia or excess of Faith; the presentiment of a faith proper to man in his integrity, excessive only when his imperfect obedience hinders the satisfaction of his wish.
Influence on other movements[ edit ].Legacy of Transcendentalism: Religion and Philosophy Heaven on Earth: The Legacy of 19th Century Transcendentalism as an Ecumenical Philosophy of Nature.
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Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
The term was probably coined by Pythagoras (c. – BCE). Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, and systematic presentation.
Beginning with the Supreme Court's school integration ruling of , the American legal system seemed sympathetic to African American demands that their Fourteenth Amendment civil rights be protected. Soon, a peaceful equality movement began under the unofficial leadership of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Legal equality did not bring economic equality and social acceptance. Gains made by civil rights activists did not bring greater unity in the movement. Transcendentalism was the first truly American philosophical movement and this nice (and cheap) edition collects some of the more canonical pieces of Transcendentalism's two greatest expounders, Emerson and Thoreau.
Britannica Classic: “The Spirit of Romanticism” A discussion of the key events and personalities of the late 18th- and early 19th-century Romantic movement in literature, music, and art. It contains dialogue based on letters and documents of the period.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Transcendentalism is a philosophical movement that developed in the late s and s in the eastern United States.
It arose as a reaction to protest against the general state of intellectualism and spirituality at the time. The doctrine of the Unitarian church as taught at Harvard Divinity School was of particular interest..
Transcendentalism emerged from "English and German Romanticism.