Race and Equality in America 2 This course explores the history of black Americans as they strove to secure their dignity as human beings, and rights as American citizens, in the face of racial prejudice. Students will examine the writings of leading black intellectuals and activists about human equality, slavery, self-government, the rule of law, emancipation, colonization, and citizenship. The course will also review laws, constitutional amendments, court cases, and social criticism addressing civil and political rights in America.
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This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Public Domain declaration, which stipulates that, once placed in the public domain, this work may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Food waste contributes to excess consumption of freshwater and fossil fuels which, along with methane and CO2 emissions from decomposing food, impacts global climate change.
Here, we calculate the energy content of nationwide food waste from the difference between the US food supply and the food consumed by the population. The latter was estimated using a validated mathematical model of metabolism relating body weight to the amount of food eaten.
Introduction Recent spikes in food prices have led to increasing concern about global food shortages and the apparent need to increase agricultural production .
Surprisingly little discussion has been devoted to the issue of food waste. Quantifying food waste at a national level is difficult because traditional methods rely on structured interviews, measurement of plate waste, direct examination of garbage, and application of inferential methods using waste factors measured in sample populations and applied across the food system  — .
In contrast, national agricultural production, utilization, and net external trade are tracked and codified in detailed food balance sheets published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO .
The food balance sheets provide a comprehensive assessment of the national food supply, including alcohol and beverages, adjusted for any change of food stocks over the reference period . Sincethere has been a progressive increase in the per capita US food supply.
Over the same period, there has also been an increase of body weight as manifested by the US obesity epidemic. We sought to estimate the energy content of food waste by comparing the US food supply data with the calculated food consumed by the US population.
Energy from ingested food supports basal metabolism and physical activities, both of which are functions of body weight. Surplus ingested energy is stored in the body and is reflected by a change of body weight.
Because the average body weight of the US population has been increasing over the past 30 years, it is not immediately clear how much of the increased food supply was ingested by the population.
Quantifying the food intake underlying an observed change of body weight requires knowing the energy cost of tissue deposition and the increased cost of physical activity and metabolic rate with weight gain. Here, we develop and validate a mathematical model of human energy expenditure that includes all of these factors and used the model to calculate the average increase of food intake underlying the observed increase of average adult body weight in the US since as measured by the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NHANES .
Figure 1C shows the progressive increase of per capita food waste in America solid curve calculated by subtracting the model predicted average food intake from the FAO per capita food supply data.American Imperialism and Progressive Era study guide by taylorhope95 includes 36 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more.
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The ERA was written by a man, and therefore, they did not feel it reflected women's interests. They believed the ERA was too progressive and would give women more rights than men.
Question 9 9.